Network Management Review – Chapter 7-12

Chapter 7 Standards,Model and Basic Ingredients of Network Management

1. NM Standards 网络管理的标准

  • Table 8.1 Network Management Standards

Standard Salient Points
OSI / CMIP International standard 国际标准 (ISO/OSI)
Management of data communications network 数据通信网络的管理 – LAN and WAN
Deals with all 7 layers 贯穿整个网络体系结构的七层
Most complete 最完善
Object oriented 面向对象的
Well structured and layered 良好的结构化和层次化
Consumes large resource in implementation 实现可以解决大型资源
SNMP / Internet Industry standard 工业标准 (IETF)
Originally intended for management of Internet components, currently adopted for WAN and telecommunication systems 最初是要管理互联网组件,现在也适用于WAN和电信系统
Easy to implement 容易实现
Managed object are defined as scalar objects 管理对象被定义为完全的对象
Most widely implemented 被实现最广泛
TMN International standard 国际标准 (ITU-T)
Management of telecommunications network 管理电信网络
Based on OSI network management framework 基于OSI网络管理框架
Addresses both network and administrative aspects of management 同时实现网络和管理权方面的管理
IEEE IEEE standards adopted internationally 国际化的IEEE标准
Addresses LAN and MAN management 实现LAN和WAN管理
Adopts OSI standards significantly 显著符合OSI标准
Deals with first two layers of OSI RM 解决了OSI的前两层
Web-based Management Web-Based Enterprise Management 基于Web的企业级管理 (WBEM)
Java Management Application Program Interface Java管理应用程序接口 (JMAPI)

2. NM Model 网络管理的模型

  • The OSI network model is an ISO standard and is the most superior of all the models OSI网络模型是ISO标准,是所有模型中最优秀的
  • (1)OSI Architecture and Model OSI体系结构和模型
    • Organization Model 组织模型
    • Information Model 信息模型
    • Communication Model 沟通模式
    • Functional Model 功能模型
  • (2)SNMP Architecture and Model SNMP体系结构和模型
    • Addresses the functional model in terms of operations, administration, and security. 在操作,管理和安全方面阐述功能模型。
  • (3)TMN Architecture TMN架构
    • Business Management 业务管理: Business management deals with managing the business associated with providing services and all the required support functions. 业务管理负责管理与提供服务相关的业务以及所有必需的支持功能。
    • Service Management 服务管理: Service management is concerned with managing the services that the network provides and ensuring that those services are running smoothly and functioning as intended. 服务管理涉及管理网络提供的服务,并确保这些服务顺利运行并按预期运行。
    • Network Management 网络管理 Network management layer involves managing relationships and dependencies between network elements, generally required to maintain end-to-end connectivity of the network. 网络管理层涉及管理网络元素之间的关系和依赖关系,通常需要维护网络的端到端连接。
    • Element Management 元素管理: The element management layer involves managing the individual devices in the network and keeping them running. 元素管理层涉及管理网络中的各个设备并使其保持运行。
    • Network Element 网元: The network element itself—the management agent, is involved with the management functionality that the network element itself supports, independent of any management system. 网元本身 – 管理代理,与网元自身支持的管理功能有关,与任何管理系统无关。
  • (4)Web-Based Enterprise Management 基于Web的企业管理: Web-Based Enterprise Management (WBEM) comprises a set of systems-management technologies developed to unify the management of distributed computing environments. 基于Web的企业管理(WBEM)包含一套为统一分布式计算环境管理而开发的系统管理技术。

3. Organization Model: the Basic Ingredients of Network Management 组织模式:网络管理的基本组成部分

  • (1)The Network Device 网络设备: The first main component in network management consists of the device that must be managed. In network management parlance, we also call the managed devices network elements (NEs). 网络管理中的第一个主要组件由必须管理的设备组成。按照网络管理的说法,我们也称为受管设备为网元(NE)。
  • (2)Management Agent 管理代理
    • To be managed, a network element must offer a management interface through which a managing system can communicate with the network element for management purposes. 为了进行管理,网元必须提供一个管理界面,管理系统可以通过该界面与网元进行通信以进行管理。
    • Management communication is inherently asymmetrical 管理沟通本质上是不对称的:
    • A managing application plays the role of a “manager” in charge of the management. (As client) 管理应用程序扮演负责管理的“经理”的角色。 (作为客户端)
    • The network element plays the role of the “agent” that supports the manager by responding to its requests and notifying it proactively of unexpected events. (As server) 网络元素扮演“代理人”的角色,通过响应其请求并主动通知意外事件,支持经理。 (作为服务器)
    • The management agent conceptually consists of three main parts 管理代理在概念上由三个主要部分组成: a management interface, a Management Information Base, the core agent logic. 一个管理界面,一个管理信息库,核心代理逻辑​​。
    • The management interface handles management communication. 管理界面处理管理通信。
    • The MIB is a conceptual data store that contains a management view of the device being managed. MIB是一个概念性数据存储,包含正在管理的设备的管理视图。
    • The core agent logic translates between the operation of the management interface, the MIB, and the actual device. 核心代理逻辑​​在管理接口的操作,MIB和实际设备之间进行转换。
  • (3)The Management System – Management System and Manager Role 管理体系 – 管理体系和管理者角色
    • Management systems provide network providers with the tools to manage the network. 管理系统为网络提供商提供管理网络的工具。
  • (5)The Management Network 管理网络
    • The network that provides interconnection between managing systems and managed systems is referred to as the management network. 管理系统和管理系统之间提供互连的网络被称为管理网络。
    • One way in which network elements can be connected to a management system is through the network element’s management port. 网元可以连接到管理系统的一种方式是通过网元的管理端口。
    • The terminal server has a whole set of serial interface ports through which it can connect with many network elements simultaneously, one through each port. 终端服务器具有一整套串行接口端口,通过它可以同时连接多个网络元件,每个端口一个。
    • The second method of connecting to an NE is through its Ethernet port. 连接到网元的第二种方法是通过以太网端口。
    • The third method of connecting to an NE is to simply use a port that is shared with other traffic—traffic that does not terminate at the NE, but that is routed or switched. 连接到网元的第三种方法是简单地使用与其他业务流共享的端口,该业务流不会在网元处终止,而是路由或切换。

Chapter 8 Information Model of Network Management

1. MIBs- The Managed Device as a Conceptual Data Store 作为概念数据存储的受管设备

  • The MIB does not store information about the real world (the actual managed device) in a file system; instead, it is actually “connected” to the real world and simply offers a view of it. MIB不会在文件系统中存储关于真实世界(实际受管设备)的信息;相反,它实际上与现实世界“连接”,只是提供了一个视图。
  • MIB: a conceptual database that is associated with a management agent and that contains a number of MOs. MIB:与管理代理关联并包含多个MO的概念性数据库。
  • MOs in MIBs are often shown arranged in conceptual tree structures. MIB中的MO通常显示为按概念树结构排列
  • The actual real-world aspects of the entity being managed that MOs represent are referred to as real resources or managed resources, to distinguish them from their management abstraction, the managed objects. MO所代表的被管理实体的真实世界方面被称为真实资源或被管理资源,以将它们与其管理抽象(被管理对象)区分开来。

2. Categories of Management Information 管理信息类别

  • (1)State information 状态信息:This is information about the current state of physical and logical resources, along with any operational data. 这是关于物理和逻辑资源的当前状态以及任何运行数据的信息。
  • (2)Physical configuration information 物理配置信息:This is information about how the managed device is physically configured. 这是关于如何从物理上配置被管理设备的信息。
  • (3)Logical configuration information 逻辑配置信息:This concerns various parameter settings and configured logical resources on the device, such as IP addresses, telephone numbers, or logical interfaces. 这涉及设备上的各种参数设置和配置的逻辑资源,例如IP地址,电话号码或逻辑接口。
  • (4)Historical information 历史信息:This includes historical snapshots of performance-related state information. 这包括与性能相关的状态信息的历史快照。

3. The Difference between a MIB and a Database MIB和数据库的区别

  • (1)Footprint 足迹: Regular DBMS mechanisms are heavier weight and require more processing resources than management interfaces. 常规DBMS机制的权重较重,需要比管理界面更多的处理资源。
  • (2)Specific management requirements 具体的管理要求: Although relations that are used in typical DBMSs are not well suited to capturing some of the constraints that are specific and common to management. 虽然在典型的数据库管理系统中使用的关系不适合捕捉管理中特定和通用的一些限制。
  • (3)Real effects 真实效果: A MIB is not a “passive” database, but a view on an “active” real-world system. MIB不是“被动”数据库,而是“现行”现实世界系统的观点。
  • (4)Characteristics of the contained data 包含数据的特征: A database typically contains large volumes of data that is largely of the same structure. 数据库通常包含大量相同结构的大量数据。

4. The Relationship between MIBs and Management Protocols MIB与管理协议之间的关系

  • As a concept, a MIB does not depend on any particular management protocol. 作为一个概念,MIB不依赖于任何特定的管理协议。
  • Management Protocols requires management information in a MIB to be represented according to the rules of a particular specification language. 管理协议要求MIB中的管理信息根据特定规范语言的规则来表示。

5. MIB Definitions MIB定义

  • Management information in a MIB is accordingly a snapshot of a particular device at a particular instant in time. MIB中的管理信息相应地是特定设备在特定时刻的快照。
  • The management information in the MIB instantiates a MIB definition. MIB中的管理信息实例化MIB定义。
  • The contents of the MIB definition are also referred to as a model. MIB定义的内容也称为模型。
  • The terms model, MIB definition, and model definition are used synonymously 术语模型,MIB定义和模型定义是同义使用的。

6. MIB specification languages MIB规范语言

  • (1)SMI and SMIv2 (Structure of Management Information versions 1 and 2), the MIB specification language that is used in conjunction with SNMP SMI和SMIv2,与SNMP协同使用的MIB规范语言
  • (2)Managed Object Format (MOF), a specification language that is used in conjunction with a management technology called Common Information Model (CIM) 管理对象格式(Managed Object Format,MOF),一种与称为通用信息模型(CIM)的管理技术结合使用的规范语言
  • (3)Guidelines for the Definition of Managed Objects (GDMO), used in conjunction with the Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP), today of only limited 与通用管理信息协议(CMIP)一起使用的管理对象定义准则(GDMO),目前仅限于
  • (4)XML,used in web-based management and Netconf——XML Schema Definitions (XSDs). XML,用于基于Web的管理和Netconf – XML模式定义(XSD)。

7. ASN.1

  • Abstract Syntax Notation One, abbreviated ASN.1, is a notation for describing abstract types and values. 抽象语法记法一,缩写为ASN.1,用于描述抽象类型和值。
  • Categories of ASN.1 Data Types ASN.1数据类型的类别
    • (1)Simple (Primitive): atomic types, with no components 简单(原始):原子类型,没有组件
    • (2)Structured: types with components 结构化:具有组件的类型
    • (3)Tagged: types derived from other types 标记:从其他类型派生的类型
    • (4)Other: CHOICE and ANY types 其他:CHOICE和任何类型

8. MIB-2 structure and definitions MIB-2结构和定义

Chapter 9 Communication Model of Network Management

1. Layers of Management Interactions 管理层互动层

  • (1)The transport layer is the first layer that provides end-to-end communication services for the communicating systems. 传输层是为通信系统提供端到端通信服务的第一层。
  • (2)Management Operations layer provides the actual management primitives—that is, the base operations that are used to manage the network 管理操作层提供了实际的管理原语 – 也就是用于管理网络的基本操作
  • (3) Management Services layer 管理服务层

2. Manager-Initiated Interactions—Request and Response 管理员启动的交互 – 请求和响应

  • (1)A typical request issued by a manager includes, at the minimum, parameters that specify the following: 管理者发出的典型请求至少包括以下参数:
    • The type of request being made 正在进行的请求的类型
    • The management information that the request applies to or, alternatively, parameters that carry information needed to carry out the request 请求所适用的管理信息,或可选的,携带执行请求所需信息的参数
    • Additional housekeeping(常规事务) information—for example, an identifier for the request and security credentials such as authentication information to verify the identity of the requestor 额外的内务处理(常规事务)信息 – 例如,请求标识符和安全凭证(如身份验证信息)以验证请求者的身份
  • (2)At the minimum, a response includes the following: 答复至少包括以下内容:
    • A response code indicating whether the request was successful. In case the request was not successful, a reason should be given. 指示请求是否成功的响应代码。如果请求不成功,应该给出原因。
    • The result of the request—for example, the information that was requested. 请求的结果 – 例如请求的信息。
    • Additional housekeeping information, such as the identifier of the original request, to help the manager match the response to the original request that it sent. 其他内务处理信息,例如原始请求的标识符,以帮助管理员将响应与其发送的原始请求进行匹配。

3. Manager-Initiated Interactions types 管理员启动的交互类型

  • (1)Information Retrieval—Polling and Polling-Based Management 信息检索 – 投票和投票管理
    • Requests for Configuration Information 请求配置信息
    • Requests for Operational Data and State Information 请求运营数据和状态信息
    • Bulk Requests and Incremental Operations 批量请求和增量操作
    • Historical Information 历史信息
  • (2)Configuration operations 配置操作
    • Failure Recovery 故障恢复
    • Response Size and Request Scoping 响应大小和请求范围
    • Dealing with Configuration Files 处理配置文件
  • (3)Actions 行动
  • (4)Management Transactions 管理交易

4. Agent-Initiated Interactions: Events and Event-Based Management 代理启动的交互:事件和基于事件的管理

  • (1)Event Taxonomy 事件分类
    • Alarms: Unexpected events indicating a condition that typically requires management attention. 警报:意外事件表明通常需要管理层关注的情况。
    • Configuration-change events: Events that inform of a configuration change that has taken effect at the device. 配置更改事件:通知已在设备上生效的配置更改的事件。
    • Threshold-crossing alerts: Events that inform that a performance-related state variable has exceeded a certain value, pointing to conditions that might require management attention to prevent network and service degradation. 阈值过高警报:通知与性能相关的状态变量超过某个值的事件,指出可能需要管理层注意的情况以防止网络和服务性能下降。
    • Logging events: Events that occur regularly and that are expected to occur during the operation of a network, that indicate what is currently going on in the network. 记录事件:定期发生并且预计在网络运行期间发生的事件,指示网络当前正在进行的事件。
    • Informational events: Any other kind of event 信息事件:任何其他类型的事件

Chapter 10 Functional Model of Network Management

1. FCAPS Model FCAPS模型

  • Fault, Configuration, Accounting, Performance, Security model 故障,配置,账目,性能,安全模型
  • (1)F Is for Fault: Fault management encloses a set of functions to detect, isolate, notify, and correct faults encountered in a network as well as to maintain and examine error logs. F是故障:故障管理包含一组功能,用于检测,隔离,通知和纠正网络中遇到的故障,并维护和检查错误日志。
  • (2)C Is for Configuration: Configuration management focuses on establishing and maintaining consistency of a system and defines the functionality to configure its functional and physical attributes as well as operational information throughout its life. C用于配置:配置管理侧重于建立和维护系统的一致性,并定义用于配置其功能和物理属性以及运行信息的功能。
  • (3)A Is for Accounting: Accounting management collects usage information of network resources. A用于账目:会计管理收集网络资源的使用信息。
  • (4)P Is for Performance: Performance management covers a set of functions that evaluate and report the performance of network elements and the network, with the goal to maintain the overall network performance at a defined level. P用于性能:性能管理包含一组评估和报告网络元素和网络性能的功能,目标是将整体网络性能维持在定义的水平。
  • (5)S Is for Security: Security management provides the set of functions: S用于安全:安全管理提供一组功能:
    • protect the network and system from unauthorized access保护网络和系统免受未经授权的访问
    • creating, deleting, and controlling security services and mechanisms 创建,删除和控制安全服务和机制
    • key management, reporting security-relevant events, and authorizing user access and privileges. 密钥管理,报告安全相关事件,并授权用户访问权限和特权。

2. OAM&P Model OAM&P模型

  • Operations involves the day-to-day running of the network—specifically, coordinating activities among administration, maintenance, and provisioning as required.操作涉及网络的日常运行 – 具体而言,根据需要协调管理,维护和供应之间的活动。
  • Administration covers the support functions that are required to manage the network and that do not involve performing changes (configuring, tuning) to the running network itself.管理涵盖了管理网络所需的支持功能,并且不涉及对正在运行的网络本身执行更改(配置,调优)。
  • Maintenance includes functionality that ensures that the network and communication services operate as they are supposed to. 维护包括确保网络和通信服务按预期运行的功能。
  • Provisioning is concerned with the proper setting of configuration parameters on the network so that the network functions as expected. 配置涉及在网络上正确设置配置参数,以便网络按预期运行。

Chapter 11 Common Management Protocols: Languages of Management

1. SNMP System Architecture SNMP系统架构

  • SNMP defines a set of five management operations, which are the primitives on which all SNMP management is based. SNMP定义了一组五个管理操作,它们是所有SNMP管理所基于的基元。
  • (1)Get and get-next requests are used to retrieve management information from a MIB. 获取和下一个请求用于从MIB中检索管理信息。
  • (2)Set requests are used to write to a MIB. 设置请求用于写入MIB。
  • (3)Get responses are used by agents to respond to get, get-next, and set requests. 代理使用获取响应来响应获取,下一步和设置请求。
  • (4)Traps are used to send event messages. 陷阱用于发送事件消息。

2. SNMP Operations–Get Request SNMP操作 – 获取请求

  • a get request includes: 获取请求包括:
    • (1)an identifier for the request, 请求的标识符
    • (2)a parameter a list of variable bindings that specify which objects are requested. 一个参数,一个指定请求哪些对象的变量绑定列表。

3. SNMP Operations–Get-Next Request SNMP操作 – 获取下一个请求

  • Function is just same with a get request. 功能与获取请求一样。
  • Contrary to an ordinary get request, for each OID specified in the request, the agent is requested to return the object with the OID that comes in lexicographical order right after that OID. 与普通的获取请求相反,对于请求中指定的每个OID,请求代理返回具有在该OID之后立即按字典顺序排列的OID的对象。

4. SNMP Operations– Get-Response SNMP操作 – 获得响应

  • An agent sends a get-response to a manager in response to a request. 代理响应请求向管理器发送获取响应。
  • A get-response includes the following parameters: 获取响应包含以下参数:
    • (1)The identifier of the request that it contains the response to. 它包含响应的请求的标识符。
    • (2)An error status that amounts to a response code that indicates whether the request was successful or resulted in an error. 错误状态相当于指示请求是成功还是导致错误的响应代码。
    • (3)An error index that carries further information, in case an error did occur. 如果发生错误,则包含进一步信息的错误索引。
    • (4)A list of variable bindings. 变量绑定列表。

5. SNMP Operations–Set Request SNMP操作 – 设置请求

  • Set a MIB object to a particular value. 将MIB对象设置为特定值。
  • In this PDU, the object values in the variable bindings are not set to null, but contain the values to set the respective objects to. 在此PDU中,变量绑定中的对象值未设置为空,但包含用于设置各个对象的值。

6. SNMP Operations–Trap SNMP操作 – 陷阱

  • The trap includes the following information: 陷阱包含以下信息:
    • (1)Who is emitting the trap—Parameters that specify the address of the agent and the type of system that is emitting the trap. 谁发出陷阱 – 指定代理地址和发出陷阱的系统类型的参数。
    • (2)What occurred—Parameters that identify the type of event. 发生了什么 – 标识事件类型的参数。
    • (3)When it occurred—A time stamp of when the trap was generated by the emitting system,measured not in absolute time, but in terms of system uptime, or time since the last booting of the system. 什么时候发生的 – 发射系统产生陷阱的时间戳,不是以绝对时间进行测量,而是根据系统正常运行时间或自系统上次引导以来的时间进行测量的。
    • (4)Additional information, conveyed in a set of variable bindings. 以一组变量绑定形式表达的附加信息。

7. SNMP Messages and Message Structure SNMP消息和消息结构

  • An SNMP message in essence consists of three parts : SNMP消息本质上由三部分组成:
  • (1)The SNMP version number.SNMP版本号。
  • (2)A community string. 社区字符串。
  • (3)The SNMP protocol data unit (PDU). SNMP协议数据单元(PDU)。

8. SNMP Protocol Specifications SNMP协议规范

  • See the SNMP Operations Example in PowerPoint. 请参阅PowerPoint中的SNMP操作示例。

9. SNMPv2/ SNMPv2c

  • The most important aspect of SNMPv2 as a protocol was the introduction of two new management operations in addition to those already known from SNMPv1: SNMPv2最重要的方面是引入了除SNMPv1已知的两种新的管理操作:
    • a get-bulk request: retrieve larger chunks of management information with one request. 获取批量请求:用一个请求检索更大的管理信息块。
    • an inform request: a notification that the recipient needs to confirm—that is, acknowledge. 通知请求:收件人需要确认的通知 – 即确认。

10. SNMPv3

  • SNMPv3 is the newest version of SNMP. SNMPv3是SNMP的最新版本。
  • It can essentially be thought of as SNMPv2c plus security. 它基本上可以被认为是SNMPv2c加上安全性。
  • SNMPv3 has significantly enhanced the scope of what it covers. SNMPv3显著增强了它涵盖的范围。

11. SNMP Configuration in typical network devices

  • (1)configure the SNMP community string 配置SNMP社区字符串
Ruijie(config)#snmp-server community [0 | 7] string   [view view-name] [ro | rw] [host host-ip] [num] 
  • keyword “0” indicates the input community name is plaintext “0”表示输入的社区名称是纯文本
  • keyword “7” indicates the input community name is ciphertext “7”表示输入的团体名称是密文
  • ciphertext is used for community name by default 密文默认用于社区名称
  • (2)Configuring SNMP Protocol Port 配置SNMP协议端口
Ruijie(config)# snmp-server udp-port port-num 
  • By default, the SNMP protocol uses 161 UDP port to receive SNMP messages 默认情况下,SNMP协议使用UDP的161端口接收SNMP消息
  • Use the no snmp-server udp-port command to restore the default port. 使用no snmp-server udp-port命令恢复默认端口。
  • (3)Configuring MIB Views and Groups
  • View-based access control model determines whether the object of a management operation is in a view or not. 基于视图的访问控制模型确定管理操作的对象是否处于视图中。
Ruijie(config)# snmp-server view view-name oid-tree {include | exclude}
  • (4)Configuring SNMP Users 配置SNMP用户
Ruijie(config)# snmp-server group groupname {v1 | v2c |v3 {auth | noauth | priv}}  [read
readview] [write writeview] 
  • (5)For access control, generally some users are associated with a group and then the group is associated with a view. 对于访问控制,通常一些用户与一个组关联,然后该组与视图关联。
Ruijie(config)# snmp-server user username groupname  {v1 | v2 | v3 [encrypted] [auth { md5|sha } auth-password ] [priv des56 priv-password] } [access {num | name}]
  • (6)Configuring SNMP Host Address . 配置SNMP主机地址。
Ruijie(config)# snmp-server host {host-addr | ipv6 ipv6-addr } [vrf vrfname] [traps] [ version {1|2c |3 [auth | noauth | priv]}] community-string [udp-port port-num] [type] 
  • (7)Configuring SNMP Agent Parameters 配置SNMP代理参数
Ruijie(config)# snmp-server contact text
Ruijie(config)# snmp-server location text
Ruijie(config)# snmp-server chassis-id number
Ruijie(config)# snmp-server net-id text
  • (8)Configuring the SNMP Agent to Send the Trap Message 配置SNMP代理发送陷阱消息
Ruijie(config)# snmp-server enable traps [type] [option]

12. syslog: The CLI Notification Sidekick

  • syslog has become extremely popular as a simple mechanism for managed devices to emit event messages syslog已经成为托管设备发出事件消息的简单机制,非常受欢迎
  • The purpose of syslog is to write system messages to a log 系统日志的目的是将系统消息写入日志

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